Cleavage of caspase-3 substrates PARP, DFF45/ICAD, and gelsolin in VSMC exposed to xanthurenic acid (XAN) for one week. DFF45 and PARP were slightly upregulated in the presence of XAN. a, Western blot of DFF45/ICAD. b, Nuclear fragmentation in control cells (left panel) and VSMC grown in the presence of XAN at 40 μg/ml for one week (right panel). c, Western blot of PARP. d, Western blot of gelsolin.