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Table 1 Summary of heart rate and activity data recorded over a 12 month period in wild black bears.

From: Monitoring the wild black bear's reaction to human and environmental stressors

Animal ID Sex Implant Date (Den Visits) Denning Situation Heart Beats per Year# Minimum Average Daily HR Maximum Average Daily HR Daytime HR Higher
(p-value)
Minimum Average Nighttime HR Maximum Average Nighttime HR Nighttime HR Higher
(p-value)
Annual Activity Minimum Daily Activity Maximum Daily Activity Duration of Winter Inactivity@ Longest Sinus Pause Confirmed by ECG Maximum HR Confirmed by ECG
Bear 1
(R2079)
F 9-Mar-09
(17-Dec-09, 04-Mar-10)
Denning with cubs 2008-9, and yearling in 2009-2010 27.5 × 106 8 bpm
(27-Dec)
120 bpm
(14-May)
Feb (0.0099)
Mar (0.023)
Apr-May (< 0.0001)
June (0.0058)
July-Sep (< 0.0001)
11 bpm
(6X: 02-Dec to 11-Feb)
139 bpm
(15-May)
Oct (0.015) 139,384 min 0 min
(5X: 17-Dec-09 to 3-Feb-10)
1084 min
(2-Sep-09)
148 days 6.1 sec
(04-Mar)
214 bpm
(31-Oct)
Bear 2
(R2081)
F 9-Mar-09
(17-Dec-09, 04-Mar-10)
Denning with yearlings 2008-9, and birthing cubs in 2009-2010 23.5 × 106 14 bpm
(08-Nov, 11-Nov)
94 bpm
(8-Sep, 9-Sep)
Feb (0.0084)
Mar (0.0079)
Apr (0.022)
May-Sep (< 0.0001)
Oct (0.041)
7 bpm
(15-Nov)
87 bpm
(19-Sep-09, 24-Sep-09)
  106,320 min 0 min
(4X: 13-Jan-10 to 1-Feb-10)
880 min
(29-Jun-09)
189 days 5.3 sec
(04-Mar)
200 bpm
(18-Sep)
Bear 3
(2213)
F 8-Mar-09
(18-Dec-09, 05-Mar-10, 05-Mar-11)
Denning with cubs 2008-9, and yearlings in 2009-2010 24.9 × 106 11 bpm
(27-Nov)
114 bpm
(07-Aug)
Apr (0.036)
May (0.0007)
June-July (< 0.0001)
Aug (0.01)
11 bpm
(26-Nov, 27-Nov, 8-Dec)
124 bpm
(3-Sep-09)
  108,900 min 0 min
(34X: 26-Oct to 26-Feb)
1046 min
(6-Aug-09)
195 days 14.4 sec
(18-Dec)
182 bpm
(7-Oct)
Bear 3
(2213)
Year 2
F 8-Mar-09
(18-Dec-09, 05-Mar-10, 05-Mar-11)
Denning with yearlings 2009-2010 and birthing cubs in 2010-2011 25.9 × 106 12 bpm
(26-Oct)
109 bpm
(26-Jun)
Apr (0.099)
May (0.0005)
Jun-July (< 0.0001)
7 bpm
(7-Nov)
126 bpm
(3-Sep)
Sep (0.0043) 101,437 min 0 min
(5X: 7-Jan to 13 Jan)
1051 min
(26-Jun)
194 days N/A$ N/A$
Bear 4
(4041)
M 2-Mar-09
(22-Dec-09, 07-Mar-10)
Denning alone 23.4 × 106 12 bpm
(4X: 20-22-Dec, 16-Feb)
105 bpm
(19-Aug)
May (0.030)
June (0.0002)
July (0.019)
12 bpm
(13X: 24-Nov to 16-Feb)
113 bpm
(22-Aug)
Sep (< 0.0001)
Oct (0.0051)
31,346 min% 20 min%
(1-Apr)
1028 min%
(8-Jun)
N/A% 10.1 sec
(07-Mar)
182 bpm
(15-Oct)
Bear 5&
(2123)
M 1-Mar-10 Denning in rescue facility. Released 7-May. N/A 35 bpm&
(19-Mar)
144 bpm&
(29-Apr)
Mar (0.0042)
May (0.0075)
June-Aug (< 0.0001)
Sep (0.0029)
32 bpm&
(11-Mar)
150 bpm&
(6-May)
  N/A 4 min&
(11-Mar)
1030 min&
(19-Aug)
N/A& N/A$ 251 bpm
(2-Sep)
Bear 6&
(2802)
F 7-Mar-10 Yearling that denned with mother N/A 35 bpm&
(10-Mar)
135 bpm&
(9-Jul)
Mar (0.036)
Apr (0.0003)
May-Aug (< 0.0001)
32 bpm&
(10-Mar, 11-Mar)
121 bpm&
(21-Aug)
  N/A 8 min&
(7-Mar)
973 min&
(23-Aug)
N/A& N/A$ N/A$
Bear 7
(4055)
M 9-Mar-10 (22-Dec-10) Denning alone N/A 16 bpm
(3X: 11-Dec, 16-Dec, 20-Dec)
128 bpm
(21-May)
Mar (< 0.0001)
Nov (< 0.0001)
Dec (0.020)
15 bpm
(8X: 19-Nov to 21-Dec)
119 bpm
(23-Dec)
May (0.0002)
July (0.047)
Aug-Sep (< 0.0001)
100,512 min* 0 min*
(10-Dec)
1034 min*
(9-Jun)
176 days N/A$ N/A$
Bear 8
(4021)
F 9-Mar-10 (09-Mar-11) Denning with cubs in 2009-2010 and yearlings in 2010-2011 25.3 × 106 15 bpm
(21-Nov, 5-Dec)
101 bpm
(19-Jul)
Mar (0.020)
Apr-July (< 0.0001)
Aug (0.0021)
15 bpm
(14-Feb, 6-Mar)
97 bpm
(1-Sep)
Sep (< 0.0001) 112,351 min 0 min
(51X: 14-Nov to 7-Mar)
980 min (19-Jul) 157 days N/A$ N/A$
  1. % Incomplete data set for activity (4-Mar to 9-Jun)
  2. * Data set is less than 12 months (9-Mar to 22-Dec)
  3. # Calculated by extrapolating daytime and nighttime heart rates to a 24 hour period.
  4. & Legally shot by hunters in the fall. Incomplete annual data for this parameter.
  5. $ No ECG available to confirm this parameter.
  6. @ The duration of winter inactivity was defined as starting when the activity dropped to below 60 minutes/day in the fall until it consistently exceeded 180 minutes/day in the spring.
  7. (min = minutes; bpm = beats per minute; HR = heart rate; 6X = 6 occurrences of this data value; N/A = not applicable to this parameter)
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