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Table 1 Details for the microCT scans illustrated in Figures. 2–15

From: MicroCT for comparative morphology: simple staining methods allow high-contrast 3D imaging of diverse non-mineralized animal tissues

Fig. Object Fixation, Storage Stain Scanner Voltage, Power Mean Energy Exp. Time Scan Time Voxel Size
2 Polyodon head Bouin's, 70% ethanol PTA Xradia 60 kV, 8 W 34 keV 11 sec 2.2 hrs 5.6 μm
3 Polyodon sections Bouin's, 70% ethanol PTA Xradia 80 kV, 8 W 41 keV 14 sec 2.8 hrs 4.3 μm
3 grayling section formalin PTA Xradia 40 kV, 8 W 26 keV 60 sec 12 hrs 2.1 μm
4 axolotl glyoxal, 70% ethanol PTA Xradia 60 kV, 8 W 34 keV 15 sec 3 hrs 9.6 μm
5 pike hatchling formalin IKI Xradia 30 kV, 6 W 22 keV 20 sec 4 hrs 4.0 μm
6 lamprey formalin, 70% ethanol I2E SkyScan 1174 50 kV, 8 W 30 keV 1.6 sec 12 4.2 hrs 15 μm
7 Polyodon head formalin, methanol I2M Xradia 80 kV, 8 W 41 keV 13 sec 2.6 hrs 5.1 μm
7 sturgeon pectoral fin Dent's, methanol I2M Xradia 40 kV, 8 W 26 keV 10 sec 2 hrs 9.2 μm
8 Xenopus embryos formalin PTA IKI Xradia 80 kV, 8 W
60 kV, 8 W
41 keV 34 keV 20 sec
25 sec
4 hrs
5 hrs
2.1 μm
3.2 μm
9 mouse embryo paraform-aldehyde IKI Xradia 80 kV, 8 W 41 keV 13 sec 2.6 hrs 9.0 μm
9 mouse embryo paraform-aldehyde PTA Xradia 60 kV, 4 W 34 keV 15 sec 3 hrs 9.6 μm
9 mouse embryo EM fix, resin block OsO4 Mayo Clinic n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 8.2 μm
10 insect thorax Bouin's, 70% ethanol I2E Xradia 60 kV, 5 W 34 keV 20 sec 4 hrs 4.3 μm
10 insect head Bouin's, 70% ethanol I2E Xradia 60 kV, 5 W 34 keV 80 sec 16 hrs 2.0 μm
11 insect tibia Bouin's/alcohol, 70% ethanol PTA Xradia 60 kV, 4 W 34 keV 40 sec 8 hrs 0.9 μm
12 fly pupa hot ethanol, 70% ethanol PTA SkyScan 1174 50 kV, 8 W 30 keV 1.6 sec 8 2.75 hrs 7.7 μm
13 Falcidens EM fix, resin block OsO4 Xradia 60 kV, 8W
80 kV, 8W
34 keV 5 sec
35 sec
1 hr
7 hrs
3.2 μm
1.6 μm
14 bryozoan Cristatella Bouin's PTA Xradia 40 kV, 8 W 26 keV 5 sec 1 hr 4.2 μm
15 squid hatchlings gluteraldehyde, cacodylate buffer PTA IKI Xradia 90 kV, 4W
40 kV, 6W
44 keV
26 keV
15 sec
20 sec
3 hrs
4 hrs
4.0 μm
4.4 μm
  1. Both scanners used tungsten x-ray sources, and all scans were made over 180° rotation with images taken every 0.25° (thus reconstructions are based on 720 projections). The Xradia scanner can make single exposures from less than one second to several minutes, whereas the SkyScan 1174 uses a set exposure time of 1.6 seconds and averages multiple frames. The mean x-ray output energy for each anode voltage setting was estimated using the Siemens online tool for simulation of X-ray spectra http://health.siemens.com/med/rv/spektrum/default.asp. n.a. = data not available.