Trypsin-like proteins of Daphnia pulex. (A) Derived amino-acid sequence and domain structure of three trypsin genes (TRY4B, TRY5F, and TRY5L) from D. pulex. Predicted domain characteristics include the N-terminal signal peptide (white frame), the propeptide (blue), the chymotrypsin-like domain (red), the conserved disulfide bridges (connected cysteine residues), the catalytic triade (red characters), and substrate-specificity residues (blue characters). Residues numbering was taken from bovine chymotrypsinogen . (B) Phylogenetic tree for selected trypsin-like sequences based on a multiple-sequence alignment of the trypsin-like domain including three adjacent propeptide residues (see Additional file 1). Proteins detected in the present study are labeled in red. The tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm and was rooted with chymotrypsin sequences. Bootstrap analysis was performed with 100 replicates (boostrap values <80 are omitted). Abbreviations and NCBI accession numbers: TRY1-TRY5M, Daphnia pulex; TAFi, trypsin from Aplysina fistularis (AAO12215); TPC, trypsin from Paralithodes camtschaticus (AAL67442); TPV, trypsin from Litopenaeus vannamei (CAA75311); TPL, trypsin from Pacifastacus leniusculus (CAA10915); PSS, plasminogen activator from Scolopendra subspinipes (AAD00320); TLS1 and TLS7, trypsin from Lepeophtheirus salmonis (CAH61270, AAP55755); TAAe, trypsin from Aedes aegypti (P29787); TAS, trypsin from Anopheles stephensi (AAB66878); TNV, trypsin from Nasonia vitripennis (XP_001599779); TDM, trypsin from Drosophila melanogaster (P04814); TTC, trypsin from Tribolium castaneum (XP_967332); TBT, trypsin precursor from Bos taurus (Q29463); TSS, trypsin-1 precursor from Salmo salar (P35031); ChPO, chymotrypsinogen 2 from Paralichthys olivaceus (Q9W7Q3); ChBT, chymotrypsinogen A from Bos taurus (P00766).